Articles on School and Adolescent Connectedness

(& the Hemingway: Measure of Adolescent Connectedness)

Sass, D. A., Castro-Villarreal, F., McWhirter, B. T., McWhirter, E. H., & Karcher, M. J. (in press). A cross-cultural assessment of school connectedness: Testing measurement invariance with United States and Chilean adolescents. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment.

Karcher, M. J. & Sass, D. (2010). A multicultural assessment of adolescent connectedness: Testing measurement invariance across gender and ethnicity. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57(3)


Karcher, M. J. & Benne, K. (2008). Erik and Joan Eriksons’ approach to human development in counseling. In K. Kraus (Ed.), Lifespan development in action: A case study approach for counseling professionals (pp. 199-238). Lahaska Press.

Karcher, M. J., Holcomb, M. & Zambrano, E. (2008). Measuring adolescent connectedness: A guide for school-based assessment and program evaluation. In H. L. K. Coleman & C. Yeh (Eds.), Handbook of School Counseling (pp. 649-669). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.*

Karcher, M. J. & L. Finn.  (2005).  How connectedness contributes to experimental smoking among rural youth: Developmental and ecological analyses. Journal of Primary Prevention, 26, 25-36.*

Karcher, M. J. (2004). Connectedness and school violence: A framework for developmental interventions.  In E. Gerler (Ed.), Handbook of school violence (pp. 7-42).  Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press.*

Karcher, M. J. (2003). The Hemingway: Measure of Adolescent Connectedness: Validation studies.  ERIC no. ED477969; ERIC/CASS no. CG032433.*

Karcher, M. J. (2002b).  The cycle of violence and disconnection among rural middle school students: Teacher disconnection as a consequence of violence.  The Journal of School Violence, 1, 35-51.*

Karcher, M. J,  & Lee, Y. (2002a). Connectedness among Taiwanese middle school students: A validation study of the Hemingway Measure of Adolescent Connectedness. Asia Pacific Education Review, 3(1), 95-114.*

Karcher, M. J. & Stone, C. (2002). Promoting connectedness to prevent dropout: The developmental approach of the Work and Learn Program.  Unpublished manuscript, Center for Education and Work, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

* = original research that is data-based

Karcher in San Antonio, with Michael Nakkula (University of Pennsylvania), after whose life story the Hemingway measure was named and who first wrote about connectedness in a 1991 article with Bob Selman